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Indigenizing Content 

  • Is an Indigenous perspective of your content available to students?

  • Are you conducting research to identify resources for integrating an Indigenous perspective?

  • Do students see themselves and elements of their lives in the visuals that I provide? 

Relevant Curriculum

  • Are students connecting their cultural and social identity to your class?

Creative Expression

  • Do students have an opportunity to express their learning through creative mediums in your class?


  • Do students have the opportunity to explore their strengths and challenges in your class?

  • Do they have the opportunity to build skills

  • Do I incorporate language in my classroom and intentionally make it less English-dominant?

  • Do I encourage students to use their language?

  • How do I positively approach non-English languages?

To preserve one’s language is to preserve one’s culture and identity.

Teaching native language results in higher academic scores in math and reading, more self- esteem/increased self-efficacy, motivation and ethnic pride among students. 


Language Resources
  • Here is a comprehensive literature review of Indigenous language revitalization, focusing primarily on North America:

  • McCarty, T. L. & Nicholas, S. E.  Reclaiming Indigenous Languages—A Reconsideration of the Roles and  Responsibilities of Schools.  In Review of educational research, vol. 38:  Language diversity and  language policy and politics in education. Washington, D. C.:  America Educational Research Association. (2014)

  • NCAI's policy brief on Native language revitalization: strong program practices:

  • HOLM, A., OZANNE, A. and DODD, B., 1997, Efficacy of intervention for a bilingual child making articulation and phonological errors. International Journal of Bilingualism, 1, 55–69.

  • Fillerup, Michael. 2011. Building a ‘bridge of beauty’: A preliminary report on promising practices in Native language and culture teaching at Puente de Hózhǫ́ Trilingual Magnet School. In Indigenous languages across the generations—Strengthening families and communities, ed. Mary Eunice Romero-Little, Simon J. Ortiz, Teresa L. McCarty, and Ran Chen, 145–164. Tempe: Arizona State University Center for Indian Education.

  • Watahomigie, Lucille J. and Teresa L. McCarty. "Bilingual/Bicultural Education at Peach Springs: A Hualapai Way of Schooling." Peabody Journal of Education 69 (1994), 26-42.

  • Vogt, L., Jordan, C., & Tharp, R. (1987). Explaining school failure, producing school success: Two cases. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 18, 276-286

  • Lipka, J. & Mohat, G. (1998) Transforming the Culture of Schools: Yup'ik Eskimo Examples. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education.

Language Research
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