Klingner, J. K., Artiles, A. J., Kozleski, E., Harry, B., Zion, S., Tate, W., Durán, G. Z., & Riley, D. (2005). Addressing the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education through culturally responsive educational systems. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 13(38). Retrieved from
The Pygmalion Effect: students' intellectual development is largely a response to what teachers expect and how those expectations are communicated. Positive, high expectations correspond to higher student achievement, higher levels of self-efficacy and leadership.
How do I both consider any challenges that students come to my classroom with while expecting students to do their best?
How can I help them to do their best in my classroom, in school more broadly, and beyond?
How do I communicate the purpose of high expectations and how students can hold themselves to doing their best?
Do I help students to set goals both in my classroom and beyond?
Do I differentiate lessons? Do I intentionally work to build both collective and individual understanding of a lesson/unit/idea?
High Expectations: Rosenthal, R.; Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the Classroom. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Mitchell, Terence R. & Daniels, Denise (2003). "Motivation". In Walter C. Borman; Daniel R. Ilgen; Richard J. Klimoski. Handbook of Psychology (Volume 12). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Tomlinson, C. A., Callahan, C. M., & Lelli, K. M. (1997). Challenging expectations: Case studies of high-potential culturally diverse young children. Gifted Child Quarterly, 41(2), 5-17.
U.S. Department of Education. (1993). National excellence: A case for developing America’s talent. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
Philips, S. (1983). The Invisible Culture. New York: Longman Press.